Monday, 9 August 2010

Surah al Mutafiffeen [Fraudsters] - Miracle Dream Tafseer - Nouman Ali Khan

Asalaam alaikum warahmatulah wabarakatuh.

Surah Mutaffifeen (83) [the Defrauding]

Miracle Dream Tafseer
- Nouman Ali Khan

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A profound declaration against a criminal.
Al Mutaffifeen: Comes from ta-fafa, a doer of tafafa is a mutafif - when they're in business - when they sellsomething to someone, they want to get a little more than they deserve, but when they give - they give less than they should.

This can be in tangible and intangible things. I.e. in services - you might owe someone 5 hours at work, but you might just give 4hours and 58minutes. Or you owe someone 1kg of rice, so you put 990grams of rice in the scale - without measuring accurately. This is a mutaffif, so that the customer can't even come back and complain that he never got the exact right amount. So it's not about taking huge amounts unjustly, but it's about little amounts taken unjustly and unfairly.

Relation to Previous Surah [Surah Infitar]

This connects to alot of things in the previous surah;

كَلَّا بَلْ تُكَذِّبُونَ بِالدِّينِ

Nay! but you give the lie to the Recompense [Deen] (reward for good deeds and punishment for evil deeds)
(Infitar 82:9)

Deen is literally the 'exact portion'. In the previous surah, it implied the exact portion we are due for on Judgment Day.

In the tafsir of this surah, Deen may also refer to the portion which the mutaffif denies - of giving - in his worldly affairs.

We also see in the previous surah (Infitar) that Allah said;

يَا أَيُّهَا الْإِنسَانُ مَا غَرَّكَ بِرَبِّكَ الْكَرِيمِ
O mankind, what has deceived you concerning your Lord, the Generous, (Infitar 82:6)

الَّذِي خَلَقَكَ فَسَوَّاكَ فَعَدَلَكَ
Who created you, proportioned you, and balanced you? (Infitar 82:7)

'Adalak - does not just refer to Him creating us in a balanced state, but it also means that He programmed you with a sense of balance.

A person who even cheats others - when he recieves something - doesn't he want his full amount? So they understand the sense of balance. They wouldn't want their relatives to get less than they deserve. But when they themselves deal with customers - they cheat with the people. It's because of this sense of balance they feel entitled to fair dealings from others to them. This shows that humans are created with an inclination to balance. But anyone who does not deal in this balanced state in their dealings with others is therefore, a Mutaffif.

Is this a Makki Surah or Madani?
[Revealed in Makkah or Medinah?]

Some people said that the beginning aayaat about the cheaters in business was about the Muslims in Medinah (Ansar) [and that these were Madani revealed aayaat]. However, brother Nouman disagrees and says that;

1- those narrations are not strong,
2- these aayaat are talking about the worst type of fujjaar (criminals), and the Muslims of Medinah were not fujjaar.
3 - the people of Medinah dealt in agriculture more than business, whereas the people of Makkah primarily did business and trading.

This is why the majority say this is a Makkan surah.

Ayah 1:

وَيْلٌ لِّلْمُطَفِّفِينَ

Waylun lilmutaffifeen

Woe to those who give less [than due],

Wayl = A curse. May destruction fall upon them (a harm
i.e. such as an illness etc.) It's an ugly kind of word. And it's been used for someone whose been totally ruined. I.e. some say "Ya waylanaa!" [meaning, Oh our destruction (has fallen on us).]

Waylun (tanween - a Nun placed at the end for further emphasis) = horrible destruction.

Waylun lilmutaffifeen - ultimate destruction / a horrible destruction, for those who engage in this kind of tafeef. They take just a little bit away without the customer realising it. Taking more then you should, or giving less than you should.

If you go further, you find Allah's Messenger explaining this Mutaffif and his effect on society;

Wa laa taffaf kayl, ilaa muni'un-nabaath, wa ukhidhu bi sineen.

Bukhari (Sahih). Chapter of Punishments. - They did not cheat a little bit in business, except;

1) The crops stopped growing.
2) They were seized by means of drought.

And Allah says in Surah Rum;

ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ لِيُذِيقَهُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

Corruption has appeared throughout the land and sea by [reason of] what the hands of people have earned so He may let them taste part of [the consequence of] what they have done that perhaps they will return [to righteousness]. (Rum 30:41)

Ayah 2:

الَّذِينَ إِذَا اكْتَالُوا عَلَى النَّاسِ يَسْتَوْفُونَ

Allatheena itha iktalooAAala annasi yastawfoon

Who, when they take a measure from people, take in full.

They recieve weight from people, they going to get the full amount they can get.

Aladheena Idhaktaaloo 'alaa al naas(those who, when they measure 'upon' the people...)

Usually - in arabic language - the word 'min' [from] is used (i.e. Aladheena Idhaktaaloo min al naas - those who, when they measure 'from' the people...)

But by Allah saying 'alaa, He is implying that these people actually bully and pressurise the seller into giving him the full amount accurately... Even if he weighs it correctly, the mutaffif would want a slight bit more out of greed.

This is even common in todays time where we might 'muscle our way'/put pressure to get something extra out of a seller, when that might not be possible for him. Sometimes it is necessary, but you deep down know in your conscience when you are being a mutaffif (by being unfair).


Yutwafawna [they are infact given in full]. Yastawfoon (mentioned in this surah) - they try to get the full as possible (i.e. i want more, more, more!)

الَّذِينَ إِذَا اكْتَالُوا عَلَى النَّاسِ يَسْتَوْفُونَ

(those who, when they measure 'upon' the people (by pressurising them), want more, more, more!).

Ayah 3:

وَإِذَا كَالُوهُمْ أَو وَّزَنُوهُمْ يُخْسِرُونَ

Wa-itha kaloohum aw wazanoohum yukhsiroon

But if they give by measure or by weight to them, they cause loss.

And when they have to waive for others, and measure the product - in a specific weight - they make sure the other person leaves in loss (khusr). "I want to make sure I give him less than he deserves (even if its just by 1%!)".

In an average arabic sentence, it would be;
Wa idhaa [and when] Kaloo [give by measure] La [for] hum [them]...

And when they give by measure for them, they cause loss.(this is how it should be in an average arabic sentence.)

But in the Qur'anic aayah it is;

Wa idhaa [and when] Kaloo hum [give by measure (to) them] aw wazanoohum [or by weight (to) them] yukhsiroon [they cause loss] :

But if they give by measure or by weight to them, they cause loss. (this is how it is in this aayah of Qur'an).

By not mentioning 'La' (for), it implies there is some form of unnatural-ness in this transaction. It is not a fair transaction. This is due to their cheating nature. But why are they like this?

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

afalaa yataDabarroon al Qur'an? Do they not reflect deeply on the Qur'an? (surah Nisa 4:82)

taDaburr - Dubur - to look behind something to see it's reality.

These people act in this cheating way, So what is the root cause of them cheating? Why do they have this cheating personality without feeling uncomfortable in doing it?

The next ayah let's us know;

Ayah 4:

أَلَا يَظُنُّ أُولَٰئِكَ أَنَّهُم مَّبْعُوثُونَ

Ala yathunnu ola-ikaannahum mabAAoothoon

Do they not think that they will be resurrected?

Have those people (ulaa/ik) - have they never thought they will be raised?

Allah doesn't speak to them, He doesn't even say 'Hum' (=them), He says ulaaa/ik - them people [this is a far distancing when referring to 'them'].

The first time this person does the sin, he is uncomfortable.
The second time this person is less uncomfortable.
Gradually they become experts in this evil and find ways to escape from the law. They then teach these illegal acts to others too.
They take pride in this - thinking they will always beat the law, and they don't feel guilty - because they don't believe they will be be taken to account for their evil.

Do they not think, that they might be ressurrected (on Judgment Day)?

Dhan - assumption
The thought of Ressurection does not even come to their mind.

mab'oothoon - ba'ath - dispatched/sent forward.

Ayah 5:

لِيَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ

Liyawmin AAadheem

For a tremendous Day -

Adheem (adhm/idhaam) commonly translated as great.

Adheem comes from Adhm, their plural is Idhaam.

Adhm is a bone, which is tough and strong. It is difficult to break.
When someone hits you with their body, i.e. a punch - the only way you recieve intense pain is if a tough bone hits you. I.e. the knuckles.

Li yawmin adheem - for a Tough Day.

Ayah 6:

يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Yawma yaqoomu annasu lirabbialAAalameen

The Day when mankind will stand before the Lord of the worlds?

In the previous surah, Allah tells us the great Day. - when the sky is ripped open, and the stars are falling off, the oceans are set on fire.

Even after hearing about such a Great Day, they still don't stop their evil ways?
We will see why as we go through the rest of the surah.

In the previous surah, Allah said;
'alimat nafsun maa qadamat wa akharat - the souls will know what they had left behind and put forward.

In this ayah, Allah is telling us - the Day when mankind will stand infront of the Master of the Aalameen (all things with an intellect).

So they will be ressurected with all their partner criminals on this Day, and even the ones they had cheated.

Ayah 7:

كَلَّا إِنَّ كِتَابَ الْفُجَّارِ لَفِي سِجِّينٍ

Kalla inna kitaba alfujjarilafee sijjeen

No! Indeed, the record of the wicked is in sijjeen.

Kal-laa - no! Not at all!
This is a negation.

Allah is silencing their thoughts and false wishes for no Judgment.
Allah is implying that even if you do not believe, even if you are in denial - No doubt - you will face this Day.

inna kitaab al fuj-jaara la fee sijjeen

In the previous surah (Infitar) we heard about angels of this world who write your actions. Documentation of what we and it being written was mentioned.

In this surah; Allah is telling us that the book of the criminals (fujjaar) is in preserved in the Sijjeen.

Fujjaar - Faajir - Fajr - to tear through

(i.e. Fajr/dawn is called Fajr because the morning light tears through the darkness).
Faajir = someone who is extremely rebellious and tears through the sanctities of Allah without fear of consequence from Allah.

Allah is telling that you might do all these forms of rebellion and tearing through Allah's forbidden boundaries - but everything you do has been written in kitaab al fujjaar.

This is like a register.

In the old days (and even in the present time secret dungeon prisons against Muslims) - there were dungeons and there was an office with a Roster - this Roster had information of which prisoner should recieve which punishment, and how long they would have to stay there for.

This Roster is kept right outside prison. And only the guards have access to it.

This is how some of the Salaf (early Muslim predecessors) commented about this book. They said that the souls of the evildoers are deep in the Earth where the souls of the criminals are kept. Allah knows best if this is correct.
This Roster is a record of what the criminals (fujjaar) have done in full detail.

The sinful soul - when it leaves this Earth - it goes to this Roster/book/record, and sees all the crimes it has committed.

Where is this Roster?

La fee Sijjeen. (no doubt - in the Sijjeen).

Sijjeen - Sijn - Prison.
Sijjeen - horrible Prison.

The nature of this Criminal (faajir) sins is recorded in a book, and that book is sent to the prison - which has a record of what punishments this criminal should recieve and how long for.

Surah al Kahf - maa li haadhal kitaab? Laa yughadiru sagheeratan aw kabeeratan il-laa ihsaaha? - what is with this book? it does not leave a big or small thing, except it has recorded it.

Everything has been thoroughly recorded.

Ayah 8:

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا سِجِّينٌ

Wa maa adraaka ma Sijjeen?

And what will make you know what Sijjeen is?

In the previous surah, Allah said; wa maa adraaka ma yawmu ad-deen? And what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is?

On the Day of Judgment, everybody will be worried.
Now, there is extra emphasis on the worst criminals.

You don't scare the criminal by the Court, you scare him by the extremely horrible Prison.

Ayah 9:

كِتَابٌ مَّرْقُومٌ

Kitabun marqoom

(It is) a Book imprinted.

This record is documented by noble trustworthy angels, as mentioned in previous surahs.
But this record is given further description;

Marqoom - to write Something in Thick, Clear writing.

to imprint it so it cannot be erased.

This is also used to stitch embroidery onto clothing (Raqqama) - because once it is stitched - it cannot be removed through washing.

This data won't just be written accurately by trustworthy angels, but it will also be unerasable - it cannot be removed.

: It's imprinted and written just like stitching - it will not be forgotten or erased.

You thought you had forgot your sin, you thought no-one saw it - but it has been sent forward like an email and you cannot prevent it once you have sent it forward.

Ayah 10:

وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُكَذِّبِينَ
Waylun yawma-idhin lilmukadhzibeen

Destruction that Day to the deniers!

Threat of Destruction is again mentioned in this surah, except it is specific to the deniers. But deniers of what?

Ayah 11:

الَّذِينَ يُكَذِّبُونَ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ

aladheena yukaziboona bi yawmi ad-deen

(those who lie against the Day of Recompense).

Ayah 10,11 and 12 of this surah all mention the word Kadhib (lying against the religion) in different forms. (mukadhibeen, yukadhibeen, yukadhibu)

So we see that the root cause of the people who cheat in business is due to their lying against the Day of Recompense. This is one of the reasons why Allah is cursing them (Wayl - Ultimate destruction.)

You lie against this Day of Recompense - and this is why you cheat people.

The things people deny the most - those are the things Allah mentions
the most. So Allah mentions them alot so the reminder stays in our minds.

This person who cheats in business is expecting full payment, and he will get his full punishment without any justice on that Day. But he wants to deny that, so he continues rebelling - yet that is continuously recorded against him.

Ayah 12:

وَمَا يُكَذِّبُ بِهِ إِلَّا كُلُّ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيمٍ

Wama yukadhdhibu bihi illa kullu muAAtadin atheem

And who will lie against it, except Mu'tadin [violator of others rights], and Atheem [continuous sinner]

- I'tada - violating someones rights. Wronging the people.
A bully - one who crosses the limits.

Atheem - Ithm (commonly translated as 'sin') - in the original form - an attitude which prevents you from doing good things.

The worst of the worst. These people will deny the Day of Judgment.

The people of language/Lughah say that Ithm is primarily in the heart.
This person feels uncomfortable in doing good deeds.

فَإِنَّهُ آثِمٌ قَلْبُهُ - fa innahu aathimu qalbuh - then surely his has become Aathim/unable to inline to good. - [Baqarah 2:238]

Al birru matma'annat alayhin-nafs, wal ithmu maa haaka fee sadrik.

Goodness is what will satisfy/relax your self [nafs], and Ithm is what will eat away at your chest (your heart).

If you persist in the characteristics of Ithm, you will become AthEEm
. - this person is stuck in that state.

Every chance he gets to do evil - he does so. Every chance he gets to do good - he pushes it away.

This is the worst type of ma qadamat wa akhkharat - what he has left behind and put forward. Because he has done all evil.

bal-il insaanu 'ala nafsihee baseera
(no doubt man is upon his self a witness) - surah qiyamah

The shocking thing is that such business cheating occurs amongst our own relatives.

And when you warn them against this, they say;

Ayah 13:

إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ آيَاتُنَا قَالَ أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ

idha Tutlaa 'alayhim aayaatuhu, qaaloo asaateeru al awwaleen

When the aayaat/signs/verses are read to them they say - these are stories of old!

Talwan / tilawatan
talya - to follow and to read.

Tutlaa (plural - read to them many times)

Asaateer -


satr - lines

in the old times you had myths, fables and mythologies, so people would write down stories which are passed on through generations for fun and cultural purposes.
People knew that these stories are not true.

This makes him Faajir - making fun of the aayaat/signs of Allah and rejecting them.

So they are Fujjaar (criminals) because;
They cheat others.
They deny the Day of Recompense.
They lie against Allah's aayaat and say they are false mythological stories.

Ayah 14:

كَلَّا ۖ بَلْ ۜ رَانَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِم مَّا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ
Kalla bal rana AAalaquloobihim ma kanoo yaksiboon

Rather We place a Rust [Raan] on their hearts.

Raan - a rust imprint that covers their hearts.

Sin after sin after sin so the heart becomes black.

Hadith: this person does a sin and their heart gets a spot of black on it. If he repents - it is polished off. But if he continues - spots are added sin after sin. So the heart becomes black with filth.

Ibn Jarir, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nisa'i, and Ibn Majah all recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

«إِنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا أَذْنَبَ ذَنْبًا كَانَتْ نُكْتَةٌ سَوْدَاءُ فِي قَلْبِهِ، فَإِنْ تَابَ مِنْهَا صُقِلَ قَلْبُهُ، قوَإِنْ زَادَ زَادَتْ، فَذلِكَ قَوْلُ اللهِ تَعَالَى:
[كَلاَّ بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ ]»

(Verily, when the servant commits a sin, a black spot appears in his heart. If he repents from it, his heart is polished clean. However, if he increases (in the sin), the spot will continue to increase. That is the statement of Allah: ((Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering) which they used to earn.)) At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' The wording of An-Nasa'i says,

«إِنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا أَخْطَأَ خَطِيئَةً نُكِتَ فِي قَلْبِهِ نُكْتَةٌ سَوْدَاءُ ، فَإِنْ هُوَ نَزَعَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ وَتَابَ صُقِلَ قَلْبُهُ ، فَإِنْ عَادَ زِيدَ فِيهَا حَتَّى تَعْلُو قَلْبَهُ فَهُوَ الرَّانُ الَّذِي قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى:
[كَلاَّ بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ ]»

(Whenever the servant commits a wrong, a black spot is put in his heart. So, if he refrains from it, seeks forgiveness and repents, his heart is polished clean. But if he returns to the sin, the spot will increase until it overcomes his (entire) heart, and this is the Ran that Allah mentions when He says: (Nay, but on their hearts is the Ran (covering) which they used to earn.))

Surah Mutaffifeen - Ibn Kathir Tafseer
What rusted on their hearts? What they used to do. Just these small cheatings in businesses gradually added up spot by spot of black - until their heart was covered in dark filthy rust.

In the previous surah
, Allah said;
Yaa ayyuhal insaana ma gharraka ilaa Rabbika al kareem?
Oh forgetful human, what has distracted you from your Generous Lord?

what has? This surah explains - His stiff and rusted heart.

Ayah 15:

كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَن رَّبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّمَحْجُوبُونَ

kal-laa innahum ar-Rabbihim yawma idhin la mahjooboon -

no! Not at all. Surely they will be blocked off from their Lord.

they won't be able to see Him (a barrier/hijab between them)

So on that Day they won't be able to see their Lord.

But they will only be able to see one thing; the hellfirewhich is staring at them.
Their eyes will be stuck on that.

This is really powerful when related to the previous surah when Allah said;
wa ma hum 'anha bi gha'ibeen
- and they will not be able to ever leave it (hell). (Infitar 82:16)

ash-Shafi'i said
; This ayah is a proof that the believers will see their Lord.

Malik; When the enemies are blocked off from seeing Allah, then He will show His full glory to the believers as they see Him.

This ayah is a punishment to the disbelievers, and a blessing to the believers.

Ayah 16:

ثُمَّ إِنَّهُمْ لَصَالُو الْجَحِيمِ

Thumma innahum lasaloo aljaheem

Then indeed, they will [enter and] burn in Hellfire.

The worst of the punishments was the sealing of the heart. But what was this for? Because they ridiculed Allah's signs.
Their heart was rusty, then they cannot see Allah, and finally - they are throwing themselves into the Jaheem - hellfire which is staring at them - ready to pounce at them.

Saaloo - Ism / Noun - a strong emphasis showing they will throw themselves into hellfire.

Ayah 17:

ثُمَّ يُقَالُ هَٰذَا الَّذِي كُنتُم بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ
Thumma yuqalu hadha alladheekuntum bihi tukadhdhiboon

Then it will be said [to them], "This is what you used to deny."

thumma Yuqaloo;

then it will be said (passive tense). Allah does not even mention Himself because He does not want to place His Majesty next to the evil of these rebellious slaves.

Allah has barricaded Himself in the previous aayaat, they cannot see Him on this Day. Now He has even distanced His voice from them.

haadha aladhee - this is the very thing

kuntum bihee tukadhiboon - you would lie against all along. This is what you would laugh at, and deny, and say it is fairytales/mythology.

In the previous surah there was a mention of denial in this life, this surah is more serious - if you don't change for the better - you will be thrown in hell and be told that this is what you lied against.

Suddenly Allah switches the scene, from disbelievers to believers.

Ayah 18:

كَلَّا إِنَّ كِتَابَ الْأَبْرَارِ لَفِي عِلِّيِّينَ

Kalla inna kitaba al-abrari lafee illiyyeen

Nay! Verily, the Record (writing of the deeds) of Al-Abrar (the pious who fear Allah and avoid evil), is (preserved) in 'Illiyyeen.

In the previous surah, Allah mentions that the righteous are fee Na'eem -

: wherever they look - they are always happy. They are always in a happy and pleasurale state.

In this surah we find more detail about the righteous;

- no doubt

Abraar (jam'u qilla / small plural) - because the people who are righteous are few.

their book is going to be in the Illiyeen;

Illiyeen - 'uluw - height.

This book will be in the company of the highest. The more higher the angels are - the more honorable they are.

A high position group of angels - they are holding the book of the Illiyeen.

: This is a very high and honored place in the highest place of Jannah.

; It could refer to a high place in Jannah/paradise, and also high positioned angels keep this book of records.

Some say; The book itself is called Illiyeen (ism/noun).

Many Muffassireen (scholars of Qur'an explanation) said; The soul of the believer is taken up to many high levels until it reaches under the throne / 'Arsh of Allah. Under that is the record of the Illiyyeen.

In this record - their punishment which they might have had for sins - they are saved from it. It also guarantees their entrance into Jannah. They see their contract, and then they return to their place (i.e. in the grave etc.) But they are given an early protection and sneak preview, with a condition of Safety from Allah before the Day of Judgment.

This is for the likes of the Shuhadaa' (those killed in Allah's way etc.)

The Shuhadaa' go straight to Paradise, so this explanation is in regard to the Muqaraboon (those really close to Allah in goodness).

Ayah 19:

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا عِلِّيُّونَ

Wama adraka maAAilliyyoon

And what can make you know what is 'illiyyun?

adra/yudri - what will give you a clue what this record is?

Ayah 20 and 21:

Ayah 20

كِتَابٌ مَّرْقُومٌ

Kitabun marqoom - (It is) a Book imprinted,

Ayah 21

يَشْهَدُهُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ

Yashhaduhu almuqarraboon - Which is witnessed by those brought near [to Allah ].

The angels are witnessing the deeds of the righteous because it contains within it the safety of Allah from hellfire and entrance into Paradise.

: he said the same as above. But the closest of the angels are looking at the records in the high levels of Jannah.

The Ruh of the righteous person rises to Allah, and the angels look at his record of good. They then all witness it; (yash-hadu al muqarraboon), so on the Day of Judgment - many angels bear witness to this persons closeness and righteousness. This person also sees his record. So on the Day of Judgment, he is at peace whilst many are in a state of worry and distress.

Ayah 22:

إِنَّ الْأَبْرَارَ لَفِي نَعِيمٍ

Innal abraara la fee na'eem

Indeed, the righteous are in pleasure

This is an exact repetition of an ayah in surah Infitar with the same wording. [see Infitar 82:13]

But that ayah in surah Infitar was a counter argument to the ayah; wa inna al fujjaara la fee jaheem - and surely the criminals are in the staring predator, hell.

In an earlier part of this surah (ayah 7) - we found; kal-laa inna kitaab al fujjaara la fee sijjeen
. - no, surely the book of the criminals is in the Sijjeen (extremely horrible prison).

Allah just tells that the criminals' Rosters' are in a horrible Prison (Sijjeen), and we realise how bad their torture will really be, so Allah ignores them now and moves onto describing the bliss of the righteous. He gives them more attention.

Allah gave alot of description of the people of Paradise in this surah. Because we didn't hear much about the people of Paradise in the previous surah.

Now Allah will highlight the bliss of Paradise. So He will give a glimpse of Paradise to us.

Ayah 23:

عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ يَنظُرُونَ

AAala al-ara-iki yandhuroon

On Thrones (of Dignity) will they command a sight (of all things):

Aareeka is singular of araa/ik. - a large couch full of cushions.

yandhuroon - looking around in detail.

When you sit down and relax - you can't look around. So Allah is saying that this is possible in Paradise.

They will be reclined, but also with the best view. Wherever you look - full bliss.

na'eem - in softness of pleasures.

Ayah 24:

تَعْرِفُ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ نَضْرَةَ النَّعِيمِ

TaAArifu fee wujoohihim nadrata annaAAeem

You will recognise in their faces the radiance of delight.

naddrah - glow/glitter/joy/beauty/freshness


naddrah - when you have joy and freshness, happiness on your face.
This is also used for vegetables and fruit when they are fresh and ripe.

wujoohun yawma idhin naaddirah - surah qiyamah - faces on that Day will be fresh/happy.

These people are sitting on couches, with lit/bright, fresh, happy faces..

..Na'eem (iddaafa) - soft, blissful, relaxed. Whenever they see something - their face smiles again;

i.e. "Look at that!" "Wow, but look at that too!" i.e. Wherever they look - they find amazement and happiness and awe.

Ayah 25:

يُسْقَوْنَ مِن رَّحِيقٍ مَّخْتُومٍ
Yusqawna min raheeqin makhtoom

They will be given to drink [pure] wine [which was] sealed.

Room Service:

Yusqawna - they will be given to drink.

This shows that they will not even have to get up to get the drinks themselves, it will be given to them.

yasqoona would be that they will get a drink. But Yusqawna means 'they are given to drink'.
Whilst they are reclining on their couches.

..min Raheeq-il Makhtoom

Raheeq: -

as-Sabooni says it is: the purest possible wine or drink, which is not contaminated by age, it is crystal clear (see through), and it has great texture in colour and it never makes you drunk (no matter how much you drink), and it has a beautiful smell.

- (from Khatm/Seal) literally means Sealed after being filled to the rim.

(i.e. Allah's Messenger is called the Khatim an-Nabiyyeen - seal of the Prophets because ALL the Prophets have fulFilled their duties), and he has finally sealed and closed the Seal to Prophethood.)
These drinks have an original Seal, they are filled to the brim - and then sealed tightly waiting for the righteous to open them and drink from them.

Beautiful wine bottles are handed over to the believers - which are sealed.

The context when these aayaat of Jannah/paradise are being revealed

The muslims are being ridiculed in Makkah, and they are criticizing the big businesses, and saying that if you do this - it will throw you in hell.

The companions of Allah's Messenger would memorize these aayaat and convey them to these cheating business criminals.
And these criminals would insult the believers, laugh at them - "What are you going to do to stop me? You're a black slave (Bilal), you're a foreigner (Suhayb ar-Rumi), get lost."
This was the experience the Muslims would face against such people.
The disbelievers avoided the believers.

You can imagine continuous insults being thrown against the Messenger, the believers, and the Qur'an.

Allah therefore encourages them to continue in their good;

- He tells them that their record is in the Illiyyoon - an amazing record of your good deeds.
- You're going to have relaxation on high couches, looking at all the wonders around you.
- You're going to have special drinks in bottles, sealed, waiting just for you.
Compare this to the disbelievers at that time - who would drink from wells. They did not get served. Only kings would, and even kings had limited drinks they could drink from, and these drinks could intoxicate you.

Ayah 26:

خِتَامُهُ مِسْكٌ ۚ وَفِي ذَٰلِكَ فَلْيَتَنَافَسِ الْمُتَنَافِسُونَ
Khitamuhu miskun wafee thalikafalyatanafasi almutanafisoon

The last of it is musk. So for this let the competitors compete.

khitamuhu Misk - it's seal has a scent of Musk.
The seal has a beautiful smell of musk, whilst the drink has not even been opened yet!

..Then in that - let those who compete - compete in this.

If you want to compete with anyone in anything - then compete with them in this - in racing to these pleasures of Jannah/paradise.

ilaa maghfiratin min Rabbik - run towards forgiveness from your Lord.
saabiqoo - race

- Nafs:

Nafs - has many derivatives.
Anfaas - breaths.
Nafas - take a breath.

competing in the spirit of healthy competition.

All these derivatives have the basic idea of 'back and forth'. I.e. In a competition, you compete one against the other. When you breathe - you breathe in and out. Etc.

This is why Nafs is used to describe the human self; It is always going back and forth in different states, so once it is in a state of desire, if it fulfills that desire it might move into a state of embarrassment, then it might repent, then it might go back to a righteous character, then it might incline to a false desire once more.
So the state of the Nafs is continuously changing and moving.

A similar ayah;
Li mithli hadha fal ya'mal 'aamiloon - (surah Saffaat) - for this (Paradise) let the workers work.

: the word Tanaafis signifies - they are running towards something so high class and elegant.

I.e. Even though the believers are being tortured and humiliated by the disbelievers, they are racing each other to reach this comfort in Paradise.

The problems of the world - Allah has taken them away from the minds of the believers. So when the Muslims are tortured, they are happy because they are sacrificing for Allah's pleasure, and the disbelievers can't understand why they have this happiness.

Why is this person happy for being insulted, humiliated and tortured? Not just that - but why are these people competing in that?

This is what happens when a heart full of Emaan and certainty is filled with Qur'an and it's pure understanding.

O Allah, fill our hearts with Emaan and pure understanding of Your words.

The passage began with Abraar (the righteous), but then Allah takes our imagination to an even higher level.

Ayah 27

وَمِزَاجُهُ مِن تَسْنِيمٍ

Wamizajuhu min tasneem

It (that wine) will be mixed with Tasnim.

Meezaaj / Mazaja / Mizj - when you put a mix in your drink i.e. to mix flavours etc.

Tasneem - Sanaam (hump of a camel) - i.e. a very high place.

Tasneem also means to elevate something, i.e. Tasneem al quboor = to raise the graves above ground.

The mixture of this drink has come from a very high fountain/waterfall called Tasneem.
It is so nice, that people wonder where this mix came from.

When you taste that Tasneem - you want it in it's pure form because it's so tastey. So the people wonder where it came from?

So Allah explains in the next ayah:

Ayah 29:

عَيْنًا يَشْرَبُ بِهَا الْمُقَرَّبُونَ

Aynun yashrabu biha al muqqaraboon -

a spring by which drink those (who are) closest to Allah.

Classical arabic is especially very picturesque (graphical).

This is ikhtisaas - specificness to these people.

bi ha - (ddarf makaan - location) - they are sitting by it and drinking it [Tasneem].
min ha (from that) is not used, bi ha implies they are actually at the spring of Tasneem.

These people are in a higher level than the Abraar (the righteous) - who would get a mix of Tasneem.
These muqqariboon (closest to Allah) are at the spring of Tasneem and drink at where it is located.

This shows the different degrees of Paradise.
The scholars also comment that this Tasneem drink is very high, its origin is very high.

: Tasneem is a waterfall/spring from which the closest to Allah drink.
This shows that the rank of the Abraar (Righteous) who are sitting on high couches will be served with sealed musk drinks, with a mix of Tasneem.
But the ones higher - closest to Allah (muqqariboon) they will drink from the location of Tasneem itself.

So on one view, Allah spoke about the worst of the worst criminals (al fujjaar). And on the other view - He spoke about the best of the best (al Muqqaraboon).

as-Sabiqoon as-Sabiqoon - ulaa/ika al muqqarraboon - those who are foremost ahead (in good) - they are the closest (to Allah.) - surah al Waqi'ah.

Allah compensates those who race and are the foremost in goodness because they do believe and do good when others do not, and this requires the most sacrifice.

Ayah 29

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُوا كَانُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يَضْحَكُونَ
Inna alladheena ajramoo kaanoo min-alladheena amanoo yaddhakoon

No doubt those who engaged in Crime [ijraam] had been making fun and laughing at the believers.

Ijraam - have a crime and see its consequences.

Those people laughed at the believers, made fun of their beliefs. The comedian's main jokes were against Muslims.
They attempted to humiliate the believers and then laughed at them.

Kaanoo [used to
(in past tense)]:

The Qur'an is full of Iltifaat - transisions from past to future/future to past, 1st person to 2nd person, 3rd person etc.)

Allah was talking about Jannah/paradise in the future tense before, now he is bringing us back into the past (i.e. this worldly life).

These aayaat are now being said in the past tense, as if the believers are remembering what hardships they used to go through and how much ease they are in now (in Jannah).

Allah did not say; the disbelievers laugh at the believers. (present tense)

He said;the Disbelievers USED TO (Kanoo - past tense) used to laugh at the believers.

So Allah is showing this in a way as if it is a distant memory, and as if the people of Jannah are remembering their time of this world.

Ayah 30:

وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِهِمْ يَتَغَامَزُونَ

Wa-idha marroo bihim yataghamazoon

And when they (disbelievers) would pass by them (the believers) - they would wink at each other.

Ghamz - gesture with their eyes. I.e. Roll your eyes, wink, insulting.

Allah even shows the smallest of their bodily actions. Just the way they look at the believers.

Ayah 31

وَإِذَا انقَلَبُوا إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِمُ انقَلَبُوا فَكِهِينَ
Wa-idha inqalaboo ila ahlihimu inqalaboo faakiheen

And when they returned to their people, they would return jesting.

Then they return to their families

(this is a repeated theme, even in surah Qiyamah 75:33 - ilaa ahlihee yatamattaaثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّىٰ - then he returned to his family with full pride of himself)

Faqiheen - joyed. From the word Faqiha - fruit.
Because when you eat a delicious fruit - you have a sense of joy on your face.

They enjoyed making funny of the believers so much - that it is like they are delighted at eating a tastey fruit.

They are so happy - it is like they can taste joy when insulting the believers. So they tell their family what they did against the believers.

This is a contrast - since the same disbelieving man will be running away from his family on Judgment Day.

Ayah 32:

وَإِذَا رَأَوْهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّ هَٰؤُلَاءِ لَضَالُّونَ
Wa-itha ra/awhum qaaloo inna haa ola-iladdaaalloon

and when they saw them - they said these people are the truly lost/misguided (ddaaloon)

They want this Paradise, that's why they're acting like this. They look at the Muslims with pity, thinking they're wasting their lives away for an 'imaginary' Paradise.

Ayah 33:

وَمَا أُرْسِلُوا عَلَيْهِمْ حَافِظِينَ

Wama orsiloo AAalayhim hafidheen

and they had not been sent upon them as guardians.

The disbelievers were not sent to guard the believers, so what is your concern if the Muslim is trying to strive for Paradise? Why do you pity him or laugh at him, when it is his concern and not yours? He believes in this Paradise for a reason.

Another opinion

The criminals are looking at the believers and are saying; who made them (believers) as guards over our matters?
I.e. When the Muslim forbids the disbelievers from doing evil, the fujjaar (criminals who tear through Allah's forbidden matters) - they ask why are Muslims getting involved in our matters? 'Who gave you such an authority to control what I do in my life?'

The previous surah tells that the believers are not watchful over you.

Inna alaykum la hafidheen - surely upon you are guardians (angels - who are guarding/writing all the evil that you do).

Ayah 34:

فَالْيَوْمَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنَ الْكُفَّارِ يَضْحَكُونَ

Falyawma alladheena amanoo mina alkuffaari yad-hakoon

then on that Day, the believers will be laughing at those who disbelieved.

the scene goes back onto the future again.

Why will the believers laugh?

In surah al Baqarah 2:212; Allah says;

زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۘ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ -

Zuyinna liladheena kaffaroo al-hayat ad-dunya, wa yaskhawna min aladheena aamanoo.

waladheena attaqaw fawqahum yawm al qiyyaamah

Beautified for those who disbelieve was the life of this world, and they made fun of those who believed.

But those who guarded against evil when remembering Allah - will be above them (the disbelievers) on the Day of Ressurection.

So Allah continues;

Ayah 35:

عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ يَنظُرُونَ
'Alaa al-araa/iki yandhuroon

They will be on these high couches, reclining, having full view.

This description is given for the second time.

But now they are looking at the disbelievers, and laughing.

Didn't you find our belief in hellfire funny before? Because now I find your situation funny because of the hardships you caused me.

Ayah 36:

هَلْ ثُوِّبَ الْكُفَّارُ مَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ

Hal thuwwiba alkuffaru ma kanoo yafAAaloon

Are not the disbelievers paid (fully) for what they used to do?

Thawb - thawwaab - to get a good salary/payback. I.e. You do good work, so you get good salary.

Have those who disbelieved now got a good salary for what they used to do?

This might be sarcasm from Allah, or sarcasm from the believers in Paradise.
And these believers are not doing any injustice, because they recieved harsh treatment from these people in this worldly life.

Yaf'aloon - to do an action without intent.

Ya'maloon - do an act with intent.

These fujjaar do evil without even thinking that I am doing a criminal act against Allah. So they don't do 'aml, they do fi'l - evil actions without thought.

This Surah's Relationship of it's Beginning to it's End:

Ibn al Jawzi: Have these criminals (fujjaar) been given what they deserve when they belittled and made fun of Allah's Book, the Messenger, and the believers'? Yes, absolutely.

- This surah started with ultimate destruction for those who cheated in business (mutaffaf), because they wanted to make a small profit.

So Allah ends the surah with;

هَلْ ثُوِّبَ الْكُفَّارُ مَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ - Have those who disbelieved now got a good salary for what they used to do? (al Mutaffifeen 83:36)

Friday, 6 August 2010

Surah al Fajr [Daybreak] - Miracle Dream Tafseer - Nouman Ali Khan

Asalaam alaikum warahmatulah wabarakatuh

Surah Fajr
[the Dawn] - Miracle Dream Tafseer

- Nouman Ali Khan

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What do we learnt from the Previous Surah from before (surah Ghashiyah)?

إِنَّ إِلَيْنَا إِيَابَهُمْ . ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا حِسَابَهُم

It is to us they will return, and it is upon us to judge them.

(Ghashiyah 88: 25-26)

The people who get questioned on that Day are destroyed, and only the people who do not have Hisaab/Questioning will be safe.

The one who is given the book in their right hand - the angels will let them pass through without a hard time.


Why did the people of the past take oaths, and why does Allah take Oaths in the Qur'an?

1 - To get attention in speech.
2 - The Object being sworn/oathed by has a relation to the Subject to come.

The oaths in this surah continue with the pattern of previous oaths which show the different signs of Allah's wonders in the sky. (I.e. The stars, the sunrise, the red glow of the sun when it sets, the still night etc.)

Ayah 1


wal Fajr.

[I swear] By the break of Day

Fajr - the time when the night has been ripped, and the light begins to come through into the sky.

Fajr (and other similar root words to it) = to tear/rip open something completely.
So the earliest time when the light tears through the darkness of the night - Fajr has begun.

Allah does an oath by this time of the Day.

This is the time of life. Animals and birds start chirping. The world is given life once again after its death.

(Surah Duha - wal layli idha saja - By the Night when it is Saja [still/not moving at all.])

It is only the believer who wakes up willingly by choice at this time to worship Allah, his Master, whereas the disbelievers/sinners remain asleep. And the animals wake up without choice. This makes the believing slave of Allah have a high rank in His sight.

At this time - the hearts are the closest and most in fear in the presence of their Lord. Why?
1 - The slave has woken up for no reason of the world except for Allah's sake.
2 - When Allah swears by the morning - He is swearing by death and life. Because the night sleep is a sign of death, and the waking up is like the Ressurection after that death.

This is affirmed by the du'a we recite from the Sunnah after waking up; Alhamdulillah aladhee ahyana ba'da ma amaatana wa ilayhin-nushoor.(the praise is for Allah who brought us to life after our death, and to Him is our gathering.)

So waking up is a reminder of the final Ressurection on Judgment Day.

3 - Darkness is removed. Since this surah is a Makki surah (revealed in Makkah when the Muslims faced hardship). The Fajr morning light is a sign of the upcoming victory of Islam after the hardships (darkness) faced by the Muslims.
Just like the morning light (of Tawheed/monotheism) removes the darkness of shirk (polytheism) and oppression.

This is why Fajr is sworn by.

Ayah 2:

وَلَيَالٍ عَشْرٍ

wa layaalin 'ashr

And I swear by Ten Nights.

[wa layaal IL (alif,lam) 'ashr - and I swear by THE ten nights" is not mentioned.

The lack of 'AL [THE] means its NOT limited to just one set of 10 nights, it could be more than one set of 10 nights. As we will see;

'10 nights' are important to ponder over because; Allah swore by them, and because they are part of the lesson of the Surah.

What are 'Ten nights'? 2 Opinions;

1 - The Last 10 Nights of Ramadan (when fasting takes place.)
2 - The First 10 Nights of Dhul Hijjah (the month in which Hajj takes place).

There other minority opinions (i.e. Some say Muharram) but these are the main two.

(The vast majority of sahaba [Companions of Allah's Messenger],tabi'oon [followers of the companions] and mufassiroon [exegesists/interpreters of the Qur'an] have held either of the above 2 opinions.)

The First or Last 10 days of any month are the most visible when you see the shifting of the moon. The major changes are known by looking at the sky, just like you look at the sky for Fajr.

Islahi - changing of the nights shows us the inevitable.

So when you see the Fajr light - you know for sure that the day is going to come. The same way if you see the moon, you know the month is going to go ahead and the moon full.

So if you want to know the victory of Islam coming, just pay attention to the Fajr dawn, and the moon as it becomes full gradually. Because surely, light doesn't come except after the darkest part of the night.

The barakah / blessings are at the highest within these nights, and the rewards are the greatest. This is why fasting, 'ibaadah (worship), sacrifice [in Dhul Hijjah] etc. Are within these nights.
This surah ends; ya ayatuhan-nafs ul muttma'inna, Irji'ee ilaa Rabiki raadiyatan mardiyatan fadkhulee janatee. (oh soul at rest, come to your Master, pleased and pleased with (by Allah) and enter my Paradise. (Ayah [89]:30) - because this person did good for the pleasure of Allah, causing Allah to be pleased with it, and as a result He entered this person into Paradise.

The Days when entering Paradise is easiest to earn.

Ramadan - Laylat-al-Qadr. - when Revelation (wahy) began. The Qur'an was revealed on this night.

The Messenger of Allah opened/took Makkah on the Day of Hajj in Dhul Hijjah. A sign of the fulfillment of his mission.

So the entire Life of Allah's Messenger is covered within these sets of 10 nights.

The dawn of Islam is near, and that was achieved within the Opening of Makkah in Dhul Hijjah on the day of Hajj.

The Fajr gives life to the dead, a sign of the Day of Ressurection. And what was one of the signs of the Day of Ressurection? The coming of Allah's Messenger Muhammad (sal Allah alaihi wasalam).

So the Fajr mentioned in the 1st ayah - a reminder of the Ressurection Day connects with the next aayah (Ayah 2) covering the life of Allah's Messengers beginning of the message, and the end of his message and the upcoming victory of Islam.

Al Aloosi:
Some say these are the ten nights of Dhul Hijjah and others say they are the 10 nights of Ramadan.

hadeeth fi bukhari; ma min iyamin 'amal as-salih, ahuba lillahi fee hinna ayaam, ya'ni 'ashru dhul hijjah...

(there are no days which are more beloved to Allah than the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah) [Bukhari]

Ayah 3:

وَالشَّفْعِ وَالْوَتْرِ

wash-shaf'i wal witr.

And I swear by the even and the odd.

shaf' = to be with someone. (i.e. Shafa'ah "I'm with him/on his side.") One part of another. One with the other.

watr = odd. (i.e. The witr prayer is in odd numbers of raka'ats).

A view by many Sahaba (companions of Allah's Messenger):

ash-shaf' - all of the creation of Allah in pairs. Male & female, night & day, darkness and light, big and small etc.

watr - only Allah alone. Since only Allah is One and there is none like or comparable to Him.

So Allah swears by the creation and Himself.

Others have connected it to the previous oaths. Some nights are odd and sometimes the nights are even. Some months are odd, some months are even.
But regardless - they are blessed months.

Qatada: ash-Shaf' - refers to everyday of the month (because every day contains a Day and a Night). Except the last day of the month which contains no night (since the night of that day fits into the new month).

[This is because the Maghrib (sunset) of a day is the night for the oncoming day, i.e. On Thursday Maghrib time = the Night of Friday. After Fajr - it is Friday daytime. At Friday maghrib (sunset) time - it is Saturday night. Etc.]

Related to this view is ash-Shaf' referring to all the days of the world because they are similar in pattern, and the Watr being the Final Day of Ressurection when everything will be different to the norms of other days of the world.

Another Deep interpretation is;

Every one of those two things within the pair need to be appreciated individually, and through looking at them individually - you see how they work together evenly for such beauty and harmony.

i.e. The night is an odd, the day is an odd. These two together are an even. The beauty of the day for our work and lively matters is something to appreciate, and the night for rest should also be appreciated. But we would not be able to appreciate them both fully unless we had two of them.

The Earth, the Sky. The male and the female. Slave and Master. Hell and Paradise. We cannot appreciate one without the other.

Similarly, this Worldly life would be out of balance if it didn't have another to balance it. So just like everything else - Allah has made a balance for it - a Judgment Day to balance out the injustices and justice done in this life. He has made the Afterlife for Punishment and Reward.

An opinion which has been criticized by many scholars, but it's interesting;

ash-shaf' - the 2 haramain of Masjid al Haram in Makkah and Masjid an-Nabawi in Medinah.
watr - Bayt al Maqdis (Masjid al Aqsa in Jerusalem).

Ayah 4:

وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَسْرِ

wal layli idha yasrI
[kasra/zeyr (i sound) at the end].

I swear by the night as it strolls away.

Normally in the arabic language, we would expect the word to be Yasree (with a Ya at the end).

But instead, there is just a kasra at the end - YasrI.

yasri - It means to take a stroll at night time.

al Akhfash was a Scholar on Hadeeth (muhadith) was asked; how come Allah removed the Ya from yasri?

He was a tough teacher and said to him, come back after a year and I will tell you. The student came back in a year and asked the same question. So the al Akhfash replied;

The night does not take a scroll. Rather, the stroll is taken - by people - in the night.
This implies that people don't have power over time, rather Allah has power over time, and humans - with the limited abilities given to them - use the different times for their benefit. So humans have to adapt to the environment, and they should not be arrogant because they themselves cannot control the time of the universe around them.

This oath (ayah 4) is connected to Ayah 1.
Ayah 2 and Ayah 3 are connected to each other.

Ayah 4 and Ayah 1 are connected. How?

The Fajr in the 1st ayah represented the Ressurection Day, the same way we wake from our sleep.
The night taking a stroll (the world coming to an end) is a sign of the approaching of the Fajr (which signifies the Day of Ressurection).

And the aayaat in between Ayah 2 and 3 signify the life of Allah's Messenger.

Oaths Summarised
Ayah 1 - signifies the Ressurection, the same way we wake up from our sleep.
Ayah 2 and 3 - signifies the coming of Allah's Messenger and him being victorious. He is one of the great signs of the end times.
Ayah 4 - the night taking a stroll signifies the world coming to an end.

Ayah 5:

هَلْ فِي ذَٰلِكَ قَسَمٌ لِّذِي حِجْرٍ

Hal fee dhalika qasamun lizhee hijr

Is there in that enough of an oath (a powerful oath) for people of rock/solid intellect?

hijr - boulder. In classical arabic, it would refer to the 'Aql - Intellect.

So what does a boulder (a big rock) have to do with the intellect?
The intellect was that which controlled you from harming yourself.
i.e. If you don't have an intellect - you will touch fire and burn yourself. But if you did have an intellect - it would prevent you.
The same way a big bolder is a barrier prevents you from passing it, the same way your intellect prevents you from harm.
An enormous restraint which prevents you from harming yourself, so you stop yourself (your bolder/intellect prevents you) from going forward in something wrong or emotional which might be harmful to you.

So in all of the Oaths mentioned earlier - is there enough of a (powerful) Oath for those who have a rock solid intellect/for those who can control their desires?

Allah does not usually do this, He doesn't usually tell people to reflect on the oaths He has mentioned earlier. Another time He has done emphasis on His oaths is in Surah Balad. And Surah al-Waqi'ah (56:75-77)

In the previous Surah, Allah warned the disbelievers through warning of the next life. So obviously they still hav't believed, so maybe they - by seeing the ruins of the disbelieving people before them - might learn lessons.

Ayah 6

أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِعَادٍ

Alam tara kayfa faAAala rabbuka biAAad

(O Muhammad) - did you not see how your Master dealt with the people of 'Aad?

He recites to the disbelievers.

TaRa - You See.
Ru'ya - see with your heart. ("I see what he means" = an action of seeing from the heart.)

yaNdhur - has been mentioned in the previous surahs - meaning to look closely at something physically with your eyes in detail.

Did you not reflect on how your people dealt with 'Aad?

kayfa = how. How did he do it?

The 'Aad people were huge, very powerful, they built enormous beams and pillars, and nobody fought them because they were so strong.

The people who were undefeatable and built such amazing big monuments. The Arabs would pass by them and wonder; how could they be destroyed? Who could overcome them?

(Who is stronger than us in power? Surah Fussilat)

From this is encouragement of Allah to His Messenger;
1 - the Quraysh arabs who thought that they were so strong - torturing the companions of Allah's Messenger. Do they think they will get away with it? Allah is giving reassurance to His Messenger that He will help the believers, the same way He helped the believers at the time 'Aad was destroyed.

2 - A threat to the disbelievers.

In the previous surah, Allah reminded His Messenger to remind the people, and in this surah - He is reminding His Messenger Himself - how He dealt with the people of 'Aad who were oppressive.

This is the last time the people of 'Aad will be mentioned in the Qur'an. To end all the discussions previously mentioned of them in a befitting way - that your Master dealt with them, so don't worry - Allah can deal with all the oppressors in an equal way without any stopping Him.

fa yu adhibuhu adhaab al akbar - He will punish him with the most powerful puinishment [Ghashiyah]

And Allah has punished them with a severe punishment.

Background on 'Aad
The people of 'Aad were from Yemen, they were the 3rd or 4th generation after Prophet Nuh [as said by Qatadah]. So they were naturally big people in size. The Prophet sent to them was Prophet Hud.

They had a famous statement;

man ashaddu min-naa quwwah? Who is stronger than us in power? (surah fussilat).

Whose going to fight us? Who can win us?

Ibn Katheer: these are the first 'aad and Allah sent Prophet Hud to them. They rejected him and they lied against the message, they opposed him, they were arrogant and rebellious, and oppressed.

So Allah tells us how He destroyed them and made them into nothing but a lesson/reminder and news to talk about.

Ayah 7:

إِرَمَ ذَاتِ الْعِمَادِ

Irama dhaatil 'imaad

Who were very tall like lofty pillars.

The earlier generation of 'Aad are Iram. These are the forefathers of 'Aad and Thamood.

some say Iram is the father who established their tribe.

Iram = to get rocks together and make a sign with them.

irama dhaatil 'imad - they possessed bodies of strength, and they built pillars and beams for their massive structures. So when people would pass by them, they would fear how they were destroyed.

: the affair of 'aad and thamood was famous for the Arabs, because their homes were adjacent to the Arabs. This is why Allah mentioned these tribes as a reminder alot in the Qur'an, since the Arabs had passed by their remnants throughout their journeys. So they would always see them.
Whereas some Prophets before were at a disadvantage because their people had not seen the remnants of nations which had been destroyed.

So the Quraysh couldn't say - we've never seen anything like that, because they would always see the remnants.

Allah also mentions Pharoah alot in the Qur'an because this person was mentioned by the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) alot, since he was destroyed in the life of Moses.

The Arabs knew of Iram and would even mention them in their poetry;

Qays bin Raqqiyat's poetry;
adraka 'aadan wa qablahum iram.
(you know 'Aad and before them Iram.)

Ayah 8:

الَّتِي لَمْ يُخْلَقْ مِثْلُهَا فِي الْبِلَادِ

Allatee lam yukhlaq mithluha fee albilad

the likes of which had never been created in all of the cities.

bilaad - city whose borders are defined and they are ready to defend its borders.
Misr [with a tanween / Noon at the end] - a city that has fortified walls on the outside or it has a dip - so you have to cross over or down something to get inside. (this is different to Egypt/Misr because that doesn't have a Tanween on).

Medina - a city with a established leader.

Bilaad - the guarded cities, which showed; might, civilization, military power which had never been seen before.

Don't you see how Allah dealt with them?

Ayah 9:

وَثَمُودَ الَّذِينَ جَابُوا الصَّخْرَ بِالْوَادِ

Wathamooda alladheena jaboo as sakhra bil wad

And [with] Thamud, who carved out the rocks in the valley?

And Thamood. Prophet Salih was sent to Thamood (the one with the miracle she camel).

sakhrah - really LARGE Bolder.

In arabic;
Naht = to scrape - within a rock. I.e. You might scrape your name on a stone.

Jaabu - drill a hole right through something, cracking open, break open. And then give final shape/structure/design.

These people didn't just scratch and make marks in stones. No, they actually made holes and cracked through stones with their own manpower. They were strong people.

waad - anyplace where water falls. So they were financially prosperous, and they were amazing designers.

waad - waad al qurra. Valleys of the towns that were destroyed.

ash-Shawkani: The lineage of the people of Thamood/Thamud is;

Thamud bin 'Aabir bin Iram bin Sam bin Nuh.

The Thamood are later descendants of 'Aad and further from Iram who came before.

Ayah 10

وَفِرْعَوْنَ ذِي الْأَوْتَادِ

WafirAAawna dhee al-awtad

and Pharoah the Possessor of pegs.

possessor of pegs:
1 - when armies travel and set camp - they put pegs in the ground.
Pharoah is known for his massive armies - so when you see the armies - you see an army of pegs.

2 - Torture Methods: Those who rebelled against him, he would cut off their limbs, then crucify them and peg their remaining body to the crucifix. Some narrations state that this happened to 'Aasiya, the believing wife of Pharoah too.

3 - Construction: the Pharoahs' were known to be famous for their powerful construction. One symbol for their constructions were their pegs, which was shown in their hieroglyphics. So the pegs might refer to their powerful construction methods.

We see that all 3 peoples described; 'Aad, Thamood and Pharoah were known for their powerful construction methods.

Why is this important for the 'arabs to hear? Because they were not builders at all.
So Allah has destroyed these people who were much more powerful in construction, living in firm, strong homes. So the Arabs who only built mud houses shouldn't feel secure from Allah's punishment.

These people were far more capable than the Arabs. Why don't you compare yourself to these great nations? Are you really going to compare yourself to them? The ones you just get scared of when you pass their towns? The remnants of them which leave hayba/terror in you?

This put the Arabs in their place. It humbled them. Since they knew they were weaker than them in all ways.

These kind of reminders are still for people of our generations; like pyramids of Pharoah and the sphynx.
The places put fear in our hearts because of the unknown atmospheres withinthem locations, and because Allah destroyed the Pharoahs', and He is easily able to do that to us people.

Now Allah will answer another question without asking it.

(Why did Allah destroy these people?)

Ayah 11

الَّذِينَ طَغَوْا فِي الْبِلَادِ

Alladheena taghaw fee albilad

Who (all) were rebellious (to Allah) in these lands,

taghaw - to go beyond the limits in rebelling against someone, because you are against their authority. (=tughyan).

Their rebellion against Allah and His Messengers' who had no armies, just a warning from Allah.

fil bilaad - (rebelled) in the lands. So where did the evil consequences start? In the city itself. The corruption starts against their own people.

"ina ma baghyukum 'ala anfusikum. - your rebellion is only against yourselves" (quran).

fil balaad - corruption takes place in the land, and the societies purposelly rebel to show their 'freedom' of rebellion against Allah and His Messengers'.
So people will not even do the basic good acts like being kind to the neighbour, or not lie. They want to show their freedom, whereas it is rebellion and harm against their ownselves (fil balaad - in their city) and punishment coming in the near future.

Ayah 12:

فَأَكْثَرُوا فِيهَا الْفَسَادَ

fa aktharoo fee hal fasaad

so they increased in corruption.

al Fasaad - corruption and deterioration. Beautiful constructions and beautiful views might be there. This was the situation of the nations described above, and also of our time. But the most corruption is present there; including injustice, racism, abuse, homelesness etc.

When you rebel (tughyan) in the land. This is when injustice and fasaad/corruption spreads.

Ayah 13:

فَصَبَّ عَلَيْهِمْ رَبُّكَ سَوْطَ عَذَابٍ

fa sabba alayhim rabuka sawta azaab

So your Lord poured on them different kinds of severe torment.

sabb - pour ALOT. I.e. Get a bucket full of water and just throw it out, bucket upon bucket of water. Slam it down.
afragha = pour.

rabuK - Your Master (O Muhammad). Allah is on the side of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah.

And don't think that your tribe/people will help you - because the nations before you were destroyed altogether. Their tribe didn't help them, and they were stronger than you disbelievers.

sab - drenched them/threw on them fully
sawt - whip. A leather whip. Some linguists say this is The worst kind of torture because it hurts your skin, and the skin being tortured is where pain hurts the most (since the most sensitive nerves are there).

jalda - lashes.
Sawt - Allah whipped them with one powerful strike.
Allah unleashed his entire whip on them.
And the whips and punishments are more severe of the next life.
So some scholars said this is Watr (1 odd whip) and the punishments of the next life are more in number (ash-Shaf').

Allah Threw His punishment fully upon them - so they were overwhelmed with the punishment.

Ayah 14:

إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَبِالْمِرْصَادِ

ina rabaka la bil marsaad.

There is no doubt, your Lord is waiting in ambush.

mirsaad = a place where someone in hunt silently watches - ready to attack when the time is right.

So O disbelievers, Allah is waiting, ready to attack, to punish. He is already waiting for you in ambush (O disbelievers).

Fajr 2 33.20

Rabaka la bil marsaad - La hum (for them) is not mentioned. This keeps the feeling of suspense and makes the one opposing the message anxious, Allah could attack/punish at anytime 'if I make the wrong move.'

Before Allah was talking about entire nations, now He will focus on the persona of the individual human being. How is man really like towards his Master?

Passage 2:

Ayah 15

فَأَمَّا الْإِنسَانُ إِذَا مَا ابْتَلَاهُ رَبُّهُ فَأَكْرَمَهُ وَنَعَّمَهُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّي أَكْرَمَنِ

Faamma al-insanu itha maibtalahu rabbuhu faakramahu wanaAA'AAamahu fayaqoolu rabbeeakraman

As for man, when his Lord tries him by giving him honour and gifts, then he says (puffed up): "My Lord has honoured me."

fa - illustrates that what is to come has some relation to what was mentioned earlier in the surah.

Before we read about tughyan (rebellion) and fasad (corruption).

In the previous surah Ghashiyah, the two keywords were Tawal-la (turned away), and kafara (disbelieved.) The consequences of denial is rebellion against Allah, which causes corruption in the land.

Nations don't become corrupt, people begin to become corrupt first. Then they effect society through their rebellion against Allah, finally causing corruption to spread everywhere.

idha Mabtalahu - when He fully/thoroughly tests.

idha abtalahu is normal in arabic.

The Ma signifies that; each and every time We test him (the human being..)

Rabuhu - his Master.

Intahana - testing. (in hujurat) - testing in a way which does not cause pain.
balaw - (kama balawna as-haab al jannah) (surah qalam). A testing which has some difficulty.
Ibtilaa - rigorous/harsh and tough testing. (this word is used in surah al Baqarah, when Allah tested Ibrahim/Abraham.)

fa akramahu wa na'amahu

ikram - to cause someone to be honored.
Karuma - to be honored in and of yourself.

kareem = you can't call yourself kareem. You can only be called Kareem when others show you respect, and it becomes recognised that this person is always being honored. (kiramah).

The first tough test Allah gives the human is that he gives him an honorable and distinctive position in society so he is famously recognised.

Na'am-ma - abundant life of comfort, ease, luxury, wherever he turns.

So outside the home - he has honour and prestige, in the home he has luxries.

Allah calls this a very difficult test.

Alot of people mistakenly think that Allah loves them if He gives them wealth. This is a major misunderstanding and has caused many to deviate from the truth when it came to them.
Allah gave many bad people alot of wealth and honour in society.
Pharoah had alot of wealth, and so did Qaroon (he is mentioned in surah al Kahf/the Cave).
The Quraysh leaders who were disbelievers had alot of honour and prestige in society.

But who gave them all this? Allah. He tested them.

Why is this test so difficult? Because people don't know this is a test, so they don't be patient in being thankful and obedient to Allah.

fa - as a result of all these blessings and favours from Allah..

yaqool [present tense form]- he (man) says over and over again/excessively (due to yaqOOl being plural, if it was singular it would be said; Fa Qaala [singular]).

he says (excessively) Rabee akraman.

akramanee Rabee.

My Lord has honored me [al ithbat 'ala ghayril fa'il - (the way he says this arrogantly implies: My Lord has honored me like He has not honored anyone else. So as a result, I deserve all these blessings as a God given right more than anyone else.)

Man didn't mention the blessings that were given to him. He just mentioned honour. He is implying that this honour I have is 'God given'.

If you study the history of the world, you see that most corrupt rulers and kings in history have always argued that 'God is on our side', that their authority and kingship is due to Divine help.
Even the pharoahs' - they believed the sun is on their side.
Even amongst hindus - they believed the stars had chosen them.
Even amongst the Catholic christians - it was believed that the king was divinely ordained by God.
So they considered their honour blessings of luxuries to be specific for them due to God 'choosing them over all other people'.

This at the individual level is also a sick disease, where once Allah gives, the slave might expect that it is Allah's duty to give him luxuries and honour all the time.

So when this slave mentions Allah, he only does so out of arrogance and to raise his level of pride. Not to be thankful to Allah.

Ayah 16

وَأَمَّا إِذَا مَا ابْتَلَاهُ فَقَدَرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقَهُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّي أَهَانَنِ
Wa amma idha ma ibtalahu faqadara AAalayhi rizqahu fayaqoolu rabbee ahanan

But when He tries him and restricts his provision, he says, "My Lord has humiliated me."

wa - and.. This is a continuation of the description of that same person being described in ayah 15.

fa qadara 'alayhi rizqahu - he lessens/constrains the provision for him.

qadara - very precise estimation/calculation.

When he had been given wealth, that was written for him in his Qadr (Destiny). When he lost wealth - that was also already written for him in his Qadr.

So even the morsel of food which did not go into our mouth had not been written for us.

fa yaqoolu rabee ahaanan - it is my Lord who has ahaanan.

ahaanan - ihaana - make an effort to humiliate someone out of animosity against them.

So this person has an attitude of bad thoughts about Allah. He is not thankful to Allah for good he does get, but when Allah does limit his wealth - as was written for him in his destiny - he says, my Lord has humiliated me (because He doesn't like me, because He is angry with me and I didn't even do anything bad. Etc.) That sort of attitude.

akraman - akramaneey [the Ya (to make the 'eey' sound at the end) should really be there but it isn't.]

ahaanan - ahaananeey [the Ya (to make the 'eey' sound at the end) should really be there but it isn't.]

This is similar to the theme mentioned earlier in Ayah 4. Wal layli idha yasr. Yasreey [the Ya (to make the 'eey' sound at the end) should really be there but it isn't.]

But why isn't the 'ee' mentioned at the end of these words?
This person says "my Lord has honored me", "my Lord has humiliated me" - and that's all, i don't want to hear anymore from anyone else. So i don't want to hear your responses or criticisms for or against my claims. An attitude of arrogance or sometimes sheer frustration.

What did these people associate honour with? When people respect you and give you blessings.

What is our rizq [sustenance]? It is the blessings we have, and it also includes the honour we have been given.

So when that wealth is taken away from him, he thinks he's lost his respect and honour. And he thinks that the only way he'll gain it back is through getting wealth back again.

This effects the Muslims today too. Like we feel embarrassed to have cheaper company brand clothes, less expensive cars, an older games console etc. And we have been affected to sub-consciously think that there is no respect/honour except through wealth and expensive items.

Keep in mind - Allah never said 'the disbeliever' said this. Allah says 'Insaan' (humans) say these words often.

Insaan - Nasiya - forgetful human being. Forgetful of his purpose, forgetful of his Lord's promises.
Insaan - Uns - Affection - to wealth and material pleasures.

Everything Allah gives is a gift since He owns everything and we were born with nothing, He doesn't have to give to us. So you should form a relationship with Him in the right way, so He will give you more (ibrahim 14:8). It's only through a corrupt relationship with Allah or a lack of sincerety with Him that causes Insaan to complain this way. And if someone carries on complaining in ungratefulness, usually the next step is rebelling against Allah. (i.e. 'if Allah didn't give me enough money through halal, then I will do it through haram!') And rebellion (tughyan) brought corruption and the destruction of the nations before us.

wa man yunhinillahu fa ma lahu min mukrim? Whoever Allah dishonours, then what will honour him? (quran).

So we see how nations become corrupt - through corrupt individuals who have wrong understandings about Allah's ways.

May Allah change our attitudes about luxuries/wealth and honour by means of these Aayaat. Ameen.

Ayah 17

كَلَّا ۖ بَل لَّا تُكْرِمُونَ الْيَتِيمَ

Kalla bal la tukrimoona alyateem

not at all (you don't deserve to be honored at all) - you do not honour the orphan.

Orphan / Yateem - someone who doesn't have any family or support in any way.

- Children who have single parents and cannot earn enough for the basic necessities.
- People who convert to Islam and are disowned by their parents.
- Muslim widows - especially in Muslim populated countries. Everyone disowns them due to 'respect', and she has no help.

People who didn't have any helpers in society were known as Yateem in the time of Allah's Messenger.

Allah doesn't even mention here the feeding or providing of Yateem. He says you don't honour them.
It's easy to honour someone higher in society rank than you. But what about the weak or 'lower class' in society who are 'below you in society' who need help? Why don't you respect them?

You should show respect and honour, like they are Royalty.

Ayah 18:

وَلَا تَحَاضُّونَ عَلَىٰ طَعَامِ الْمِسْكِينِ

Wala tahaaddoona AAala taAAami almiskeen

And you don't encourage each other - at all - in feeding the poor.

So Allah told us to honour the weak, and then encourage - ourselves and others - to feed them.

This is because we live in a society where we might give 10 moneys to the homeless person on the street. "Here's 10 moneys, but don't touch me".

We need to do Ikraam (honour) of the ones in need. There is no dawah to Islam better than this.

You people have this wealth and people respect you, yet you spend the blessings given to you in vain and useless activities. Why should you then be worthy of honor, if you don't even honor and feed the needy with the blessings given to you?

Ayah 19

وَتَأْكُلُونَ التُّرَاثَ أَكْلًا لَّمًّا
Wata/kuloona atturatha aklan lamma

And you devour inheritance all with greed,

On top of this, you consume turaath.

turaath - wiraathah - inherited wealth. It can also refer to wealth which you gain without having to do any work for it.

So this person is already rich, but he still wants more free money.
So you see a ill member dying and all you think is, how am I going to inherit from their money after they die?

akla lamaa -
lam - pile something together, put your arms around it, and eat it [akl - to eat].

This is how you want to eat up the wealth of the orphan.
These criticisms are being directed at the disbelievers, but we live in such a shocking time that even Muslims are doing this due to their cultural backgrounds. I.e. They don't give their sisters inheritance share to them etc. Saying "I need it more than her."

Ayah 20:

وَتُحِبُّونَ الْمَالَ حُبًّا جَمًّا

Watuhibboona almala hubbanjamma

You love wealth gathered.

That's the biggest crime this person has committed - since his love for wealth is the root cause for all his evils.

jam'a - to fill a scale to the brim. Fully loaded. ALOT of full wealth.

These people think their wealth will be with them always, or that it will stay within their families.

But Allah says; inna nahnu narith al ard wa man alayha, wa ilayna yurja'un.
- surely We will inherit the earth, and what is on it, and to Us is their return. (quran).

The previous surah Ghashiyah had the hereafter in the beginning. This surah has the hereafter in the end.

Ayah 21

كَلَّا إِذَا دُكَّتِ الْأَرْضُ دَكًّا دَكًّا

Kalla idha dukkati al-ardu dakkan dakka

No! when the earth is smashed and pounded.

dakka - pound and beat a material till it becomes dust - then you can flatten it out.

Dakkan dakka - pounded and pounded till it is flattened out.

Allah told us about how He has made the mountains as nusub/pegs, how He has spread the earth for us etc.
This same Earth - He will pound and beat it till it becomes flattened.

In the previous aayaat - wealth was mentioned. The same wealth you are hoarding up and keeping safe, that is part of what will be pounded and turned into useless dust.

Ayah 22:

وَجَاءَ رَبُّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفًّا صَفًّا

Wajaa rabbuka walmalaku saffansaffa

and your Lord will come, and the angels will come (descend) rows upon rows upon rows.

saffan saffa - rows upon rows, like a never ending army. The disbelievers would boast about their armies being huge in numbers. So on this Day - Allah will show His angels standing in rows upon rows upon rows like a massive army.

In the previous surah - we were told to look at the sky and how it has been raised (rufi'at).

In this surah - the description of Judgment Day shows us that we will look at the sky and see angels coming down from it in rows upon rows upon rows.

Ayah 23

وَجِيءَ يَوْمَئِذٍ بِجَهَنَّمَ ۚ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَذَكَّرُ الْإِنسَانُ وَأَنَّىٰ لَهُ الذِّكْرَىٰ
Wajee-a yawma-izin bi jahannama yawma-izin yatadhakkaru al-insanu wa anna lahu adhdhikra

And on that Day then, hellfire (jahannam) will be brought forward.

Jahannam - according to sone linguists, comes from the Persian word Jahnaam = Torture chamber.

According to the ahadith, it will be brought and dragged forward with chains.

yawma idhin yatadhakarul insanu..

This is not separate in another ayah, rather it is in the same ayah because just when man sees the torture chamber, he will remember all that he had done in this world.

On that Day the insan/(forgetful) human will remember fully/thoroughly what it had done (of deeds in this life).

yatadhakaru. - fully and thoroughly remember.

In the previous surah, Allah told His Messenger to remind (yadh-dhakur) and remind. And the disbelievers would choose not to benefit from the reminder.

So the irony is that the disbelievers didn't choose to benefit from the reminder, but on this Day - when they see the torture chamber of hell - they will thoroughly remember every detail they had done in this life.

..wa annaa lahudhikra.
And whats the benefit of the reminder (at that point)?

It's too late by then.

When they remember everything they had done in life of worthlessness and sin..

Ayah 24:

يَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي قَدَّمْتُ لِحَيَاتِي

ya qoolu ya laytanee qadamtu li hayatee.

He will say, "Oh would that I had forwarded some good for my (future) life!"

ya laytanee - oh what destruction has fallen on me! I'm destroyed!

qadamtu li hayatee - if only i had sent savings ahead (if only i had invested) for my life.

If only I had spent my wealth in obedience to Allah - an investment for the real life of Jannah/Paradise.

But instead he wasn't encouraging to feed the needy, using his wealth to oppress others, while eating up more wealth of the orphan / weak, and still being greedy for more in this life.
Wasn't he doing all this for his life? But on this Day he will know that the real life is the one which is everlasting in Paradise.

But he cannot mend his ways - it's too late to return.

Ayah 25

فَيَوْمَئِذٍ لَّا يُعَذِّبُ عَذَابَهُ أَحَدٌ
Fayawma-idhin la yuAAazibu AAazaabahu ahad

So on that Day, none will punish [as severely] as His punishment,
fa yawma idhin

Then on that Day, no-one will be torturing the likes of His torture.

ash-Shawkani: on that day there is not going to imagine a more intense punishment than for the ones who disobeyed Him.

these sins include rebellion, and corruption.

Ayah 26

وَلَا يُوثِقُ وَثَاقَهُ أَحَدٌ

Wala yoothiqu wathaqahu ahad

And nobody will tie/bind the likes of His tying/bind.

wathaaq - tie with a firm, strong binding.

After all this reminder, the stubborn disbelievers are so hopeless of being guided - that their situation is dropped (we know they are binded. What comes after that? Hell. But it isn't mentioned because we're already supposed to know that from the previous Surahs'.)

Ayah 27:

يَا أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ

Ya ayyatuha annafsualmutma-inna

(It will be said to the pious): "O (you) the one in (complete) rest and satisfaction!

So Allah now turns to and talks to the one He has hope in. (And it is Allah talking to all the relaxed people.

The context of the following words takes place in Jannah/paradise;

Ya = O! Hey you! This is used when directly talking to someone. [shifting the earlier speech of 3rd person to 2nd person - as a sign of Allah's closeness to His believing tranquil slave.]
Through this technique, Allah is FORCING the listener/recitor to imagine himself being the tranquil soul in Paradise who Allah is talking to.

O tranquil person [nafs]...

muttma'inah - ittminaan - completely tranquil.

This surah earlier talked about a person who wasn't tranquil, who was always afraid of losing his wealth and honour.

The believing slave, who didn't let his nafs get taken away from empty false desires.

fa ammaa man khaafa maqaama Rabihee wa nahan-nafsa 'an-il hawa (quran).
The one who feared standing infront of his Master and he prevented the nafs from vanities/empty desires.

Oh calm/tranquil/satisfied Nafs/person.
This is one of the great gifts in Paradise, eternal bliss, calmness and ease...

Beginning of the Surahs' relation to its End:

Muhammad al Sha'rawi: the oaths mentioned in the first 4 aayaat are related to the times when the tranquil nafs/self takes the most advantage of them situations.

Ayah 1 - wal Fajr - the time when the believer prays in the early morning, and it is the most tranquil of times in the day and the time when no worldly distractions are in the mind.

Ayah 2 - wal-layaal al 'ashr - and the 10 nights. The tranquil self takes advantage of the last 10 nights of Ramadan and Dhul Hijjah. These are the best nights and days to do worship.

Ayah 3 - wash-shaf'i wal watr. And the even and the odd. Some said that it refers to the even and odd prayers (the amount of raka'ahs).

Ayah 4 - wal layli idha yassr - and the night when it departs. This is the last 3rd of the night when prayers are answered the most by Allah. Also the time for Tahajjud/Qiyam al Layl prayer. And also the time for Suhoor - the time you eat your meal for fasting.

What has satisfied this Nafs?

Ayah 28

ارْجِعِي إِلَىٰ رَبِّكِ رَاضِيَةً مَّرْضِيَّةً

irji'ee ilaa rabiki raaddiyatan marddiyah

return to your Master well-pleased and pleasing [to Him],

In this worldly material life - everyone else was tiring to achieve other forms of pleasure. But what was this tranquil Nafs yearning for? To meet Allah.

'alaa bi dhikrillah tattma'ina al quloob surah ar-ra'd). Surely with the remembrance of Allah do hearts find calmness.

So before he would think of Allah and find peace in His remembrance, so he is now returning to Allah in a tranquil state.

People who turn to Allah sincerely and become serious in Allah's cause - you face alot of problems. Your family, friends, society, everyone will cause problems or friction for you. But when you return to Allah - that's when you find the most tranquility in life. More than any other way of life.

irji'ee - Rajaa' - return

ilaa Rabika - to your Lord

Raadiyatan - pleased with Allah.
This person is pleased with Allah in all situations, unlike the person described in the early parts of the surah who was always showing arrogance and ungratefulness against Allah.

Mardiyatan (ism maf'ool) - well pleased with (by Allah)

Ayah 29:

فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي

fa-dkhulee fee 'ibaadi - so enter in amongst my slaves.
This person read about the righteous before him, of the Prophets', and the righteous, and he would wish to be with them.
So after Allah met and spoke to the tranquil nafs, He allowed it to meet the other righteous slaves of Allah.

Ayah 30

وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي

..wa-dkhulee jannatee

and enter my Jannah/paradise.

After all these amazing gifts, He mentions Paradise last.

He didn't say enter Jannah/paradise.

He said; JannatEE - (enter) MY garden.

So whenever someone enters Jannah, Allah tells them individually - O tranquil Nafs, enter amongst my righteous slaves and enter MY Jannah.

He didn't say enter your Jannah (which you achieved), but He said MY Jannah - so it must be so amazing that He attributes this Paradise - which He has made with His own hands - to Himself, His Perfection.

Allah is forcing us to picture ourselves as the one to whom Allah is talking to, the one to who Allah says; enter amongst my slaves, and enter into my Paradise.

O Allah make us of those with a tranquil nafs (mutma'innah), and make for us a home in Jannah al Firdaws close to you, ameen.